Deaf Education

This section of Info to Go includes resources focusing on deaf education and learning characteristics of students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Deaf Education

Clerc Center Resources 

Educating Students Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: A Guide for Professionals in General Education Settings (2016)

Three-module resource designed at the Clerc Center in collaboration with Educational Regional Center 20 in Texas for educators in general education settings. The modules provide introductory information about deaf and hard of hearing students, instructional considerations for educators, and information about educational planning (IDEA, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, ADA).

200 Years of Deaf Education in America

Information compiled at the Clerc Center about the history of Deaf Education leading up until the current time. Included is a link to a video developed at Gallaudet University titled: America's Founders: Friends of the Deaf.

Critical Needs of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Public Input Summary (2013)

Analysis completed by the Clerc Center identifying barriers encountered in providing programs and services for students who are deaf and hard of hearing children. The top five barriers identified are: 1) knowledge and education of caregivers, professionals, and the general public; 2) collaborative efforts; 3) qualified professionals and services; 4) meeting the needs of the student within the school system; and 5) the child's self-development.

Odyssey: New Directions in Deaf Education

Magazine published annually at the Clerc Center. It focuses on topics of importance as related to research, philosophy, and application of practices of instruction in deaf education. Each issue centers on a specific theme. Subscription is free. The following articles are related to general issues involved in educating students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

Odyssey: New Directions in Deaf Education
(Annual magazine published by the Clerc Center)

Five Factors Leading to Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Success: Perspectives of a Veteran Teacher (2017)

Camp Invention ASL: Inclusive, Relevant, Family-Focused Science (2017)

Collaboration: Definitions and Explorations of an Essential Partnership (2016)

The Power and Promise of a Handshake: Milestones in Collaboration (2016)

Evaluative Thinking: Using Results-Oriented Reasoning to Strengthen Collaboration (2016)

Dare to Dialogue: Engaging Parents in System Change (2016)

Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education (2016)

Online with the Clerc Center: Bringing Resources to Families and Professionals (2015)

Teachers, Parents, and -Above All- Students "Buy In" to Raise Expectations (2014)

The Power of Expectations: Two Stories (2014)

Raising Courtney Just Like Her Sisters: Forging High Expectations (2014)

High Expectations Require Supporting New Teachers: Educating the School Community (2014)

Reflections on Expectations (2014)

Academic Rigor (2014)

Meeting Mandates, Supporting New Arrivals, and Improving a Good Program (2014, Odyssey Extra)

Generation to Generation: The Fight for Language Access Continues (2013)

Minnesota Brings Together Stakeholders to Develop a Plan for Children Who Are Deaf, Deafblind, and Hard of Hearing (2013)

Child First: A Belief, an Attitude, and a Path to Change (2013)

In Search of "Best Practice": A Professional Journey (2012)

Responding to NCLB in Alaska: A Three-Pronged, Teacher-Focused Approach Yields Success (2012)

Partners with a Purpose: The Consultant Teacher Model in Educating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (2010)

Stakeholder resources

Bill of Rights for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

Documentation of the issues involved in developing a Bill of Rights for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This type of bill, emerging in many states, stresses the basic human need for a child to be able to communicate freely with others. The website shares information about statewide initiatives in establishing a Bill of Rights.

Statement: Child First Principles (Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools and Programs for the Deaf)

Statement of principles related to CEASD's philosophy and beliefs surrounding "equality and quality education for deaf and hard of hearing children." This statement describes important tenets integral to understanding what comprises quality access to language and communication, with the child central to the discussion.

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

Professional association of educators dedicated to advancing the success of children with exceptionalities through advocacy, standards, and professional development.

Standards for Programs: Preparing Teachers of Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Council on Education of the Deaf)

Updated standards for accredited programs training teachers of the deaf.

Frequently Asked Questions on Effective Communication for Students with Hearing, Vision, or Speech Disabilities in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools (Justice Department and the U.S. Department of Education)

Frequently Asked Questions  Fact Sheet English  Fact Sheet en Español  

Dear Colleague Letter English  Dear Colleague Letter en Español 

Fact Sheet, and Dear Colleague letters issued jointly in 2014 by the Justice Department and the U.S. Department of Education, explaining public schools' responsibilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to meet the communication needs of students with hearing, vision, or speech disabilities. HearingLikeMe (Phonak) Sponsored by Phonak as a component of HearingLikeMe.com, this website includes an on-line community for educating students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The web pages are organized into information for teachers ("Teaching a Child with a Hearing Loss"), parents ("Stand Up for Your Child"), and students ("The Perfect Combination").

The National Agenda (National Deaf Education Project)

Web page addressing the initiatives of the National Deaf Education Project, a coalition of parent, consumer, professional, and advocacy organizations involved in the education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This group, in working to develop an effective, communication and language-driven educational delivery system for deaf and hard of hearing children, developed The National Agenda: Moving Forward on Achieving Educational Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (2005, April), which can be found on this website. 

National Technical Institute for the Deaf/Rochester Institute of Technology

The National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) is a technological college for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. It is one of the nine colleges of Rochester Institute of Technology. NTID also supports research in the area of Deaf Education.

Center for Education Research Partnerships (CERP) (NTID)

The Center for Education Research Partnership, an RIT/NTID Center for Excellence, is charged with establishing and joining research partnerships concerning development and learning among deaf and hard-of-hearing students across the lifespan and in various educational settings.

Deaf Education: A New Philosophy (NTID)

NTID's discussion of research supporting the importance of shifting the way we look at how deaf students are being educated.

Educating Deaf Children (NTID)

Interactive website hosted by the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). Experts answer questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by parents and educators of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Raising and Educating Deaf Children: Foundations for Policy, Practice, and Outcomes

Website operating in association with the Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, which is published by Oxford University Press, and administered by the Center for Education Research Partnerships at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. It provides evidence-based information to guide policy-making and practices associated with raising and educating deaf children.

Supporting Success for Kids with Hearing Loss 

Privately developed website for professionals and family members providing information about the learning and social issues of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. The website is divided into information on early intervention and school-aged students. There are links to numerous practical resources as well as webcasts for training on a variety of topics. See: http://successforkidswithhearingloss.com/catalog.

Characteristics of Deaf Learners

Clerc Center Resources

Educating Students Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: A Guide for Professionals in General Education Settings (2016)

Module 1 of a three-module resource providing introductory information about deaf and hard of hearing students. Included are videos from experts in deaf education discussing the characteristics of deaf learners.

Language Learning Through Eye and Ear (webcast, 2017)

Two-part research-based webcast, presented by Deborah Chen Pichler, a member of the Gallaudet University Linguistics faculty, addressing how deaf and hard of hearing babies acquire language and why one should sign with babies as early as possible. It provides early interventionists a foundational knowledge to engage in dialogue with parents and professionals about the neurolinguistic benefits of early exposure to visual language for all babies. It also provides research supported data to counter inaccurate assumptions surrounding dual language learning in deaf and hard of hearing children. Included is a reference list to support this webcast. 

Maximizing Language Acquisition: ASL and Spoken English (webcast, 2016)

Webcast providing an evidence-based rationale for supporting language acquisition in both American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English for young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Experienced professionals in deaf education discuss the important ingredients essential to learning language as well as common misconceptions that tend to drive language and communication practices. Accompanying the webcast is a comprehensive reference list.

Tips to Go (For Educators) (2017)

A series of bookmarks designed for general educators in public schools working with deaf and hard of hearing students. They provide an overview of topics including: Educational Success for Your Students and You, Different Abilities, Unique Needs—Supporting Learning in the Classroom, Fostering Social Connections-Teachers Make a Difference, Accommodating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Schools, and Reaching Out—Parents as Partners. Supplemental information is available online.

What the Eyes Reveal About the Brain: Advances in Human Language Acquisition-Insights from Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) and the Brain and Language Laboratory for Neuroimaging (BL2)  (webcast, 2014)

Dr. Laura-Ann Petitto, from Gallaudet University's Brain and Language Laboratory, shares breakthrough research related to the visual modality and what happens when, as she says, "the lion's share of knowledge comes from the eyes." She addresses the impact of that on brain structure and function, and findings on how this applies to early language acquisition. 

Critical Needs of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Public Input Summary (2013)

Examination of the characteristics of deaf and hard of hearing students and a discussion of barriers encountered in providing effective programs and services.

Odyssey: New Directions in Deaf Education
(Annual magazine published by the Clerc Center)

A Look at National Data: Parental Expectations Shape Student Achievement (2014)

An Issue of Learning: The Effect of Visual Split Attention in Classes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (2012)

Revolutions in the Science Of Learning: A New View from a New Center (2012)

Gallaudet University Resources

Brain and Language Laboratory for Neuroimaging (BL2)

Lab at Gallaudet University providing neuroimaging and behavioral studies examining knowledge about the biological mechanisms and environmental factors impacting the human capacity to learn and convey language, achieve reading mastery, and become a skilled bilingual.

Demographics: Annual Survey

Summary of annual survey results compiled at Gallaudet University, documenting the demographics of deaf and hard of hearing students K-12. This initiative is currently on hold with the most recent results shared being from 2010.

Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2)

A Science of Learning Center at Gallaudet University on "Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2)" established to advance knowledge and strategies related to how aspects of human higher cognition are realized through vision. They seek to determine the effects of visual processes, visual language, and social experience on the development of cognition, language, reading and literacy.

Visual Attention and Deafness (VL2)

This research brief, developed by the Visual Language and Visual Learning Center at Gallaudet University, highlights the research demonstrating the role of visual attention for students who are deaf or hard of hearing with implications for the classroom environment.

Stakeholder resources

Journal Articles

Deaf and hearing children's development of theory of mind, peer popularity, and leadership during middle childhood (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2016)

Word and World Knowledge Among Deaf Learners With and Without Cochlear Implants (Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2014)

Executive Function and Language in Deaf Children (Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2008)

Theory of Mind: Language and Cognition in Deaf Children (ASHA Leader, 2002)

Books

Deaf Learners (2006)

Full text of book with numerous chapters addressing the characteristics of deaf learners as this relates to teaching.

Educating Deaf Learners: Creating a Global Evidence Base (2015)

Chapter 2: Being a Deaf Student: Changes in Characteristics and Needs

Chapter 7: Literacy and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Chapter 11: Deaf Children's Executive Functions: From Research to Practice?

How Deaf Children Learn: What Parents and Teachers Need to Know (2012)

Guide for professionals and families highlighting the strengths and needs of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and addressing what makes them unique learners. It includes areas such as language and communication, cognition, and literacy as well as considerations for students in the classroom.

Raising and Educating Deaf Children: eBulletins
(Associated with the Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Oxford UP)

Language Deprivation and Behavioral Challenges (2016)

Thinking in Action: Considerations for Mathematics Instruction for Deaf Children (2016)

Thinking Skills of Deaf Learners (2014)

Last revised November 2017

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