References: Early Beginnings for Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

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By Marilyn Sass-Lehrer, PhD/February 2014

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Natural environments for infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families [Fact sheet]. Joint Committee of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the Council on Education of the Deaf. 

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2008b). Service provision to children who are deaf and hard of hearing, birth to 36 months [technical report]. Joint Committee of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the Council on Education of the Deaf. Available from

Baker, S. (2011). Advantages of early visual language. National Science Foundation of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning. Research Brief No. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.

Calderon, R. (2000). Parent involvement in deaf children's education programs as a predictor of child's language, early reading, and social-emotional development. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5, 140-155.

Enns, C., & Price, L. (2013). Family involvement in ASL acquisition. National Science Foundation of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning. Research Brief No. 9. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.

Gallaudet Research Institute. (2011, November). Regional and national summary report of data from the 2009-10 annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth. Washington, DC: Author, Gallaudet University.

Geers, A. (2002). Factors affecting the development of speech, language and literacy in children with early cochlear implantation. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 33, 172-183. 

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. PL 108-446, 20 USC 1400 note. 118.Stat. 2647

Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. American Academy of Pediatrics, 120(4), 898-921.

JCIH 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing. Pediatrics, 131(4), e1324 -e1349. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0008 

Kennedy, C., McCann, D., Campbell, M. J., Kimm, L., & Thornton, R. (2005). Universal newborn screening for permanent childhood hearing impairment: An 8-year follow-up of a controlled trial. Lancet, 366(9486), 660-662.

Kennedy, C. R., McCann, D. C., Campbell, M. J., Law, C. M., Mullee, M., Stavros, P., et al. (2006). Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing impairment. New England Journal of Medicine, 354(20), 2131-2141.

Koester, L. S., & McCray, N. (2011). Deaf parents as sources of positive development and resilience for deaf infants. In D. H. Zand & K. J. Pierce (Eds.), Resilience in deaf children: Adaptation through emerging adulthood (pp. 65-86). New York: Springer.

Marge, D. K., & Marge, M. (2005). Beyond newborn hearing screening: Meeting the educational and health care needs of infants and young children with hearing loss in America. Report of the National Consensus Conference on Effective Educational and Health Care Interventions for Infants and Young Children with Hearing Loss, September 10-12, 2004. Syracuse, New York: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, SUNY Upstate Medical University.

Meadow-Orlans, K. P., Mertens, D. M., & Sass-Lehrer, M. (2003). Parents and their deaf children: The early years. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Meadow-Orlans, K., Spencer, P., & Koester, L. (2004). The world of deaf infants: A longitudinal study. New York: Oxford University Press.

Meadow-Orlans, K., & Steinberg, A. (2004). Mother-infant interactions at 12 and 18 months: Parenting stress and support. In The world of the deaf infants. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moeller, M. P. (2000). Early intervention and language development in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Pediatrics, 106(3): E43.

Moeller, M. P. (2007). Case studies: Children. In R. L. Schow & M. A. Nerbonne (Eds.), Introduction to audiologic rehabilitation (5th ed.) (pp. 437-466). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Nicholas, J., & Geers, A. (2007). Will they catch up? The role of cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 50, 1048-1062.

Nittrouer, S., & Burton, L. (2001). The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and language processing abilities in children with hearing loss. Volta Review, 103, 5-37.

Nussbaum, D., Waddy-Smith, B., Doyle, J. (2012). Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: Considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33, 310-321.

Pipp-Siegel, S., Sedey, A., & Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2002). Predictors of parental stress in mothers of young children with hearing loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(1), 1-17.

Raimondo, B. (2011). Early detection and intervention: How far we've yet to go. Odyssey, 12, 3-5.

Sass-Lehrer, M. (2011). Birth to three: Early intervention. In M. Marschark & P. Spencer (Eds.), Handbook of deaf studies, language and education (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Sass-Lehrer, M., Benedict, B., & Hutchinson, N. (2011). Preparing professionals to work with infants, toddlers, and their families: A hybrid approach to learning. Odyssey, 12, 44-51.

Shulman, S., Besculides, M., Saltzman, A., Ireys, H., White, K., & Forsman, I. (2010). Evaluation of universal hearing screening and intervention. Pediatrics, 126, S19-27.  

Spencer, P., & Marschark, M. (2006). Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York: Oxford University Press.

Spencer, P., & Marschark, M. (2011). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York: Oxford University Press.

Steinberg, A., Bain, L., Montoya, L., Indenbaum, M., & Potsic, W. (2000). Parental values in the decision about cochlear implantation. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 55(2), 99-107.

Stredler-Brown, A., Moeller, M. P., & Sass-Lehrer, M. (2009). Competencies for early interventionists: Finding consensus. Presentation at Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Conference, Dallas, Texas.

Wainscott, S., Croyle, C., & Sass-Lehrer, M. (2004). Family functioning, family involvement and family decision-making: Reflections from families identified through UNHS. Paper presented at the International Conference on Universal Newborn Hearing Screening. Como, Italy. 

Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2003). From screening to early identification and intervention: Discovering predictors to successful outcomes for children with significant hearing loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(1), 11-30.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2006). Early identification, communication, modality, and the development of spoken language skills: Patterns and considerations. In B. Schick & P. Spencer (Eds.), Advances in spoken language development of deaf children and hard-of-hearing children (pp. 298-327). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2010). The Colorado journey towards optimal outcomes for children with hearing loss. Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders in Children in Childhood, 20(1), 3-11.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Coulter, D., & Thomson, V. (2000). Newborn hearing screening project: Effects on speech and language development for children with hearing loss. Journal of Perinatology (suppl), 20(8), S132-142.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Sedey, A., Coulter, D., & Mehl, A. (1998). Language of early-and later-identified children with hearing loss. Pediatrics, 102 (5), 1161-1171.

Young, A., & Tattersall, H. (2005). Parents evaluative accounts of the process of universal newborn hearing screening. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10 (2), 134-145.

Young, A., & Tattersall, H. (2007). Universal newborn hearing screening and early identification of deafness: Parents' responses to knowing early and their expectations of child communication development. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12 (2), 209-220.

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