Language and Communication

This section of Info to Go includes resources about language acquisition and language use in the education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy, May 2011(Government Accounting Office, PDF)

This Government Accounting Office report examines: a) the extent of hearing loss among students in publicly funded education, b) the types of settings in which students who are deaf or hard of hearing are educated, c) the factors that help children who are deaf or hard of hearing acquire language and literacy skills, and d) the challenges to providing appropriate interventions to these students.

Frequently Asked Questions: Considerations for Using an ASL and Spoken English Bilingual Approach with Young Children who are Deaf  and Hard of Hearing (Clerc Center, PDF)

This FAQ, developed at the Clerc Center, responds to questions related to bilingual development in two modalities. It discusses evidence supporting an ASL and spoken English approach and the planning process essential to implementing this approach with young children. It provides references and resources related to this topic.

Language and Learning (Boys Town)

This section of My Baby’s Hearing, a family website from Boys Town National Research Hospital, includes information about early intervention, development of communication with a baby, ideas for nurturing language development, and support opportunities for the whole family. It is available in English and Spanish.

Making a Plan: IFSP Considerations for Children who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (CDC, PDF)

This document was developed by the Parent-to-Parent Committee of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and EHDI. It is designed to guide conversations between parents and their Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) teams as they address the unique language and communication considerations for a child who is deaf or hard of hearing. Available in English and Spanish (translated into Spanish by the Texas School for the Deaf).

Setting Language in Motion: Family Supports and Early Intervention for Babies who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Boston Children's Hospital and Clerc Center)

This web-based product was developed as a collaborative effort between the Boston Children’s Hospital and the Clerc Center for early intervention providers, educators of deaf children, early childhood specialists, allied professionals, parents, and other caregivers. Seven modules are provided to share information critical to promoting early language acquisition for young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This product is available in both American Sign Language and spoken English, with closed captions.

Sign Language Use for Deaf, Hard of Hearing, and Hearing Babies: The Evidence Supports It (ASDC and Clerc Center, PDF)

Developed by Tina V. Malloy and disseminated by the American Society for Deaf Children and the Clerc Center, this document discusses the evidence supporting the use of sign language with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. It is available in English, Spanish, and Chinese.

The “Why” and “How” of an ASL/English Bimodal/Bilingual Program  (Odyssey, PDF) 

This article from the 2012 Odyssey focuses on the rationale behind establishing an ASL/English bilingual program to facilitate language development and use in two modalities (visual and auditory), and practical strategies for how to do it.

Visual Language Visual Learning Center (VL2): Research Briefs

This series of research briefs on visual language and visual learning was developed as a resource for educators and parents to summarize relevant scholarship and make recommendations for practice. Briefs one through four are available in English, Spanish, and Chinese. For a description of, and links to, each of these briefs, and associated descriptions of the briefs in ASL, see: Summary of VL2 Research Briefs

What the Eyes Reveal About the Brain: Advances in Human Language Acquisition-Insights from Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) and the Brain and Language Laboratory for Neuroimaging (BL2)  (Clerc Center Archived Webcast)

Dr. Laura-Ann Petitto from Gallaudet University's Brain and Language Laboratory shares breakthrough research related to the visual modality and what happens when as she says, "the lion's share of knowledge comes from the eyes." She addresses the impact of that on brain structure and function and findings on how this applies to early language acquisition.

This site was supported by federal funding. Publication of this material shall not imply approval or acceptance by the U.S. Department of Education of the findings, conclusions, or recommendations herein. Gallaudet University is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, hearing status, disability, covered veteran status, marital status, personal appearance, sexual orientation, family responsibilities, matriculation, political affiliation, source of income, place of business or residence, pregnancy, childbirth, or any other unlawful basis.