Guided Reading and Writing
Guided Reading and Writing is an approach to word and language study where, under the guidance of a teacher, small groups of students read books that are just a little harder than those they can read on their own. The teacher assists the students in developing fluency, confidence, and insights into themes, styles, divergent opinions, and various forms of literature.
"Guided reading and writing occur when the teacher guides students in discussing and exploring the reading process so that students can develop literacy skills, and later apply what they learn when they read and write independently....most of the time the teacher's role is to invoke students' responses based on their own thoughts and opinions about the reading process." - Stephanie Malik, Teacher
The Role of the Educator is:
- to work with small groups of students at their instructional level;
- to observe, coach, prompt, and evaluate the students' reading processes;
- to model strategies and provide practice on solving comprehension breakdowns;
- to use activities such as word walls to promote students' word recognition and spelling; and
- to document and adjust groups throughout the year.
Observers Will See:
- small groups of students working with an adult;
- educators regularly evaluating student performance;
- students using a variety of ways to comprehend texts, such as visualizing, clarifying, feeling, summarizing, predicting, questioning, and reflecting;
- educators asking questions that allow for varied students responses and interpretations; and
- a print-rich environment.
How It Works
Guided Reading Stages:
Guided reading and writing develops a process of predicting, sampling, and then confirming or correcting. Various reading strategies are taught explicitly to students.
- Elicit prior knowledge
- Build background
- Introduce the book
- Picture walk through the book
- Educator reinforces reading strategies
- Students read to practice reading strategies
- Reflect on reading strategies
- Build comprehension
a. discuss the story
- Extend the reading
a. respond through writing
b. respond through visual learning
- Read independently
At the Kendall Demonstration Elementary School and the Model Secondary School for the Deaf at the Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University, a Book Leveling Correlations for Guided Reading was set up. Guided Reading libraries with circulating collections of six-book sets for each title were established at the two schools.
About Guided Reading and Writing: Literature Circles
Guided Reading: Levels A to Z (PDF)
The Book Leveling Correlations for Guided Reading (PDF)
On this chart, the second column from the left shows Guided Reading levels represented by letters of the alphabet.
Good Places to Get Started
Good Books to Read and Discuss with Colleagues Include:
Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Su Pinnell. 1996. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, ISBN 0-435- 08863-7.
Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Su Pinnell. 2001. Guiding Readers and Writers: Teaching Comprehension, Genre, and Content Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, ISBN 0-325-00310-6.
Schulman, Mary Browning and Carleen Dacruz Payne. 2000. Guided Reading: Making It Work. New York: Scholastic, ISBN 0-439- 11639-2.
Supportive Research and Descriptive Literature
Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell. 1996. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell. 2001. Guiding Readers and Writers (Grades 3-6): Teaching Comprehension, Genre, and Content Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell. 1999. Matching Books to Readers: Using Leveled Books in Guided Reading, K-3. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Hornsby, David. 2000. A Closer Look at Guided Reading. Armadale, Victoria, Australia: Eleanor Curtain Publishers.
Pinnell, Gay Su and Irene Fountas. 2001. Leveled Books for Readers, Grades 3-6: A Companion Volume to Guiding Readers and Writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Pinnell, Gay Su, and Irene Fountas. 1998. Word Matters. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Schulman, Mary Browning. 2000. Guided Reading: Making It Work. New York: Scholastic.
Putting It All Together: Guided Reading in a Comprehensive Literacy Classroom
Some Publishers of Guided Reading and Writing Resources:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Burns, B. & Johns, J.L. Guided Reading: A How-to For All Grades. Arlington Heights, IL : Skylight, c2001.
Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G.S. Matching Books to Readers: Using Leveled Books in Guided Reading, K-3. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, c1999.
Fountas, I & Pinnell, G.S. Classroom Management for Guided Reading [online course]. Lesley University, The Ohio State University.
Fountas, I. Guiding Readers and Writers (Grades 3-6): Teaching Comprehension, Genre, and Content Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, c2001.
Malik, S. Guided Reading & Writing: Learning How to Learn. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 17:5 (May/June 1999).
Miller, A. K. Book Steps: Leveled Trade Books for Guided Reading, Independent Reading, and Authentic Assessment. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Portage Main Press, c2000.
Opitz, M. Reaching Readers: Flexible and Innovative Strategies for Guided Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, c2001.
Physical Science: Guided Reading and Study Workbook. Prentice Hall, c2001.
Pinnell, G.S. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, c1996.
Pinnell, G.S. Leveled Books for Readers, Grades 3-6: A Companion Volume to Guiding Readers and Writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, c2001.
Rog, L.J. Guided Reading Basics: Organizing, Managing, and Implementing a Balanced Language Program in K-3. Stenhouse Pub., c2003.
Saunders-Smith, G. The ultimate guided reading how-to book: Building Literacy Through Small-Group Instruction. Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr Press, c2003.
Schleper, D. R. Prereading Strategies. Washington, DC : Gallaudet University, c1992.
Schulman, M.B. Guided Reading: Making It Work. New York: Scholastic, c2000.
Tompkins, L. Guided Reading and Writing: A Role for Parents in Leading Children to Literacy. Odyssey, (Summer 2000), 18-21.