Cochlear Implants: References


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Reference List

Early Language:

Courtin, C. (2000). The impact of sign language on the cognitive development of deaf children: The case of theories of mind. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

Grosjean, F. (2008). The bilingualism and biculturalism of the deaf. Studying Bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Padden, C., Rathmann, C., & Smith, S. R. (2012). Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance for the use of alternative approaches. Harm Reduction Journal, 9(16). doi:10.1186/1477-7517-9-16  

Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P. , Mathur, G. , Napoli, D.,  Padden, C., & Rathmann, C.  (June 2014) Ensuring language for deaf children: What can linguists do. Linguistic Society of America, 9(2),  pp. e31-e52.  

Kuhl, P. (2004, November). Early language acquisition: Cracking the code. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience. 5.  

Meadow-Orlans, K., Spencer, P., & Koester, L. (2004). The world of the deaf infant. New York: Oxford University Press.  

Schick, B., de Villiers, J., de Villiers, P., & Hoffmeister, B. (2002, December). Theory of mind: Language and cognition in deaf children. The ASHA Leader Online, 22.  

Sign2Me. (2009). Supporting research.  

Snoddon, K. (2008, June). American Sign Language and early intervention. The Canadian Modern Language Review.  

Spencer, P., & Harris, M. (2006).  Patterns and effects of language input to deaf infants and toddlers from deaf and hearing mothers. In M. Marschark & P. Spencer (Eds.), Advances in the sign language development of deaf children (pp. 71-101). New York: Oxford University Press.  

Visual Language and Visual Learning Science of Learning Center. (2011, January). Advantages of Early Visual Language (Research Brief No. 2). Washington, DC: Sharon Baker.  

Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2006). Early identification, communication modality, and the development of speech and spoken language skills: Patterns and considerations. In P.E. Spencer & M. Marschark (Eds.), Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children (pp. 298-327). New York: Oxford University Press.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C., & Sedey, A. (2000).  Early speech development in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: Interrelationships with language and hearing.  In C. Yoshinaga-Itano & A. Sedey (Eds.), Language, speech, and social-emotional development of children who are deaf or hard of hearing: The early years [Monograph]. The Volta Review, 100(5), 181-211. 

Age of Implantation:

Geers, A. E., & Nicholas, J. G. (2013). Enduring advantages of early cochlear implantation for spoken language development. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 56, 643-655. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0347)  

Geers, A. E., Nicholas, J. G., & Sedey, A. L. (2003). Language skills of children with early cochlear implantation. Ear and Hearing, 24, 46S-58S. doi:10.1097/01. AUD.0000051689.57380.1B  

Hammes, D. M., Novak, M. A., Rotz, L. A., Willis, M., Edmondson, D. M., & Thomas, J. F. (2002). Early identification and cochlear implantation: Critical factors for spoken language development. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 111, 74-78.  

McConkey Robbins, A., Burton Koch, D., Osberger, M. J., Zimmerman-Phillips, S., & Kishon-Rabin, L. (2004, May). Effect of age of cochlear implantation on auditory skill development in infants and toddlers. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 130(5), 570-574. doi: 10.1001/archotol.130.5.570.    

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2006, June). Effects of early auditory experience on the spoken language of deaf children at 3 years of age. Ear and Hearing, 27(3), 286-298.  

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2007). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1048-1062.  

Quittner, A., & Leibach. P. (2004, May). The impact of cochlear implants on young deaf children. Archives of Otolaryngology, 130.  

Spencer, P. (2004). Individual differences in language performance after cochlear implantation at one to three years of age: Child, family, and linguistic factors. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 395-412.  

Svirsky, M. A., Teoh, S. W., & Neuburger, H. (2004). Development of language and speech perception in congenitally, profoundly deaf children as a function of age at cochlear implantation. Audiology Neurolotology, 9(4), 224-233.  

Waltzman, S., & Roland, T. (2005, October). Cochlear implantation in children younger than 12 months. Pediatrics, 116(4).   

Other Factors Impacting Implant Outcomes:

Belzner, K. A., & Seal, B. C. (2009). Children with cochlear implants: A review of demographics and communication outcomes. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(3), 311-333.

Cosetti, M. K., & Waltzman, S. B. (2012). Outcomes in cochlear implantation: Variables affecting performance in adults and children. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 45, 155-171. doi:10.1016/j.otc.2011.08.023     

Hassanzadeh, S. (2012). Outcomes of cochlear implantation in deaf children of deaf parents: Comparative studyJournal of Laryngology & Otology, 126, 989-994.  

Hawker, K., Ramirez-Inscoe, J., Bishop, D. V., Twomey, T., O'Donoghue, G. M., & Moore, D. R. (2008). Disproportionate language impairment in children using cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing, 29(3), 467.  

Pisoni, D. B., Conway, C. M., Kronenberger, D. L., Horn, J. K., & Hennings, S. C. (2008). Efficacy and effectiveness of cochlear implants in deaf children. In M. Marschark & P.C. Hauser (Eds.), Deaf cognition: Foundations and outcomes (pp. 52-101). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Neural Plasticity:

Sharma, A., Dorman, M. F., & Kral, A. (2005). The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hearing Research, 203, 134-143.  

Sharma, A., Dorman, M. F., & Spahr, A. J. (2002). A sensitive period for the development of the central auditory system in children with cochlear implants: Implications for age of implantation. Ear and Hearing. 23(6), 532-539.  

Sharma, A., Tobey, E., Dorman, M., Martin, K., Gilley, P., & Kunkel F. (2004). Central auditory maturation and babbling development in infants with cochlear implants. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 130(5) 511-516.

Use of Sign Language:

Cochlear Implant Education Center (April, 2009). Conference proceedings: Cochlear implants and sign: Building foundations for effective educational practices. Washington, DC: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University.  

Connor, C. M., Hieber, S., Arts, H. A., & Zwolan, T. A. (2000). Speech, vocabulary, and the education of children using cochlear implants:  Oral or total communication? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 1185-1204.  

Connor, C., & Zwolan, T. (2004). Examining multiple sources of influence of the reading comprehension skills of children who use cochlear implants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 509-26.  

Cummins, J. (2006). The relationship between American Sign Language proficiency and English academic development: A review of the research.  

Davidson, K., Lillo-Martin, D., & Chen Pichler, D. (2013). Spoken English language development in native signing children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 19, 238-250. doi:10.1092/deafed/ent045  

DesGeorges, J. (2004). Spoken language gets a piggyback ride on language in any modality. Excerpted from Christine Yoshinag-Itano, Hands and Voices.  

Giezen, M. R. (2011). Speech and sign perception in deaf children with cochlear implants (Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2011).  

Hyde, M., & Punch, R. (2011). The modes of communication used by children with cochlear implants and the role of sign in their lives. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(5), 535-549.  

Jimenez, M. A., Pino, M. J., & Herruzo, J. (2009). A comparative study of speech development between deaf children with cochlear implants who have been educated with spoken or spoken and sign language. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 73(1), 109-114.  

Kovelman, I., Shalinsky, M. H., White, K. S., Schmitt, S. N., Berens, M. S., Paymer, N., et al. (2009). Dual language use in sign-speech bimodal bilinguals: fNIRS brain-imaging evidence. Brain and Language, 109, 112-123. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2008.09.008.  

Mayer, C., & Leigh, G. (2010). The changing context for sign bilingual education programs: Issues in language and the development of literacy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(2), 175-186.  

Mitchiner, J. (2014) Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education (2014) doi: 10.1093/deafed/enu028  

Moeller, M. (2006). Use of sign with children who have cochlear implants: A diverse set of approaches. Sign of the (Changing Times), Loud and Clear newsletter, Advanced Bionics Corporation.

Nussbaum, D., & Scott, S. (2011). The Cochlear Implant Education Center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In R. Paludneviciene & I. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives (pp.175-205). Washington: DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Nussbaum, D. Waddy-Smith, B. & Doyle, J. (2012). Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33(4), p. 310-321.  

Petitto, L. A., & Holowka, S. (2002). Evaluating attributions of delay and confusion in young bilinguals: Special insights from infants acquiring a signed and a spoken language.  

Petitto, L. A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B., Gauna, K., Tétrault, K., & Ferraro, V. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for mechanisms underlying bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28(2), 1-44. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.  

Petitto, L. A., & Kovelman, I. (2003, Spring). The bilingual paradox: How signing-speaking bilingual children help us to resolve it and teach us about the brain's mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages, 8(3), 5-18.  

Preisler, G. (2007). The psychosocial development of deaf children with cochlear implants. In  L. Komensaroff (Ed.), Surgical consent: Bioethics and cochlear implantation (pp. 120-136). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.  

Preisler, G., Tvingstedt, A., & Ahlström, M. (2002). A psychosocial follow-up study of deaf preschool children using cochlear implants. Child: Care, Health and Development, 28(5), 403-418. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2214.2002.00291.x  

Rinaldi, P., & Caselli, M. C. (2014). Language development in a bimodal bilingual child with cochlear implant: A longitudinal study. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 798-809. doi:10.1017/S1366728913000849

Seal, B., Nussbaum, D., Belzner, K., Scott, S., & Waddy-Smith, B. (2011). Consonant and sign phoneme acquisition in signing children following cochlear implantation. Cochlear Implants International, 12(1), 34-43.

Spencer, L. J., & Bass-Ringdahl, S. (2004). An evolution of communication modalities: Very young cochlear implant users who transitioned from sign to speech during the first years of use. International Congress Series, 1273, 352-355.  

Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2006). Early identification, communication modality, and the development of speech and spoken language skills: Patterns and considerations. In Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children (pp. 298-327). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Language and Literacy:

Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (4th ed.). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.  

Berent, G. P. (2004). Sign language-spoken language bilingualism: Code mixing and mode mixing by ASL-English bilinguals. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), The handbook of bilingualism (pp. 312-335). San Diego: Academic Press.     

Conner, C. M., & Zwolan, T. (2004, June). Examining multiple sources of influence on the reading comprehension of children who use cochlear implants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 509-526.  

Fagan, M. K., & Pisoni, D. B. (2010). Hearing experience and receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15, 149-161. doi:10.1092/deafed/eng001  

Fagen, M., Pisoni, D., Horn, D., & Dillon, C. (2007, Fall). Neuropsychological correlates of vocabulary, reading, and working memory in deaf children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(4).  

Geers, A. (2006). Spoken language in children with cochlear implants. In P. M. Spencer & M. Marschark (Eds.), Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children (pp. 244-270). New York: Oxford University Press.  

Geers, A. E. (2002, July). Factors affecting the development of speech, language and literacy in children with early cochlear implantation. Language, Speech, Hearing Services in the Schools, 33, 172-183.   

Geers, A. E. (2003, February). Predictors of reading skill development in children with early cochlear implantation. Ear and Hearing. 24(1).  

Geers, A. E. (2004). Speech, language, and reading skills after early cochlear implantation. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 130, 634-638.  

Geers, A. E., Nicholas, J. G., & Sedey, A. L. (2003, February). Language skills of children with early cochlear implantation. Ear and Hearing. 24(1).  

Geers, A., Spehar, B., & Sedey, A. (2002). Use of speech by children from total communication programs who wear cochlear implants. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11(1), 50-58. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2002/006).  

Geers, A. E., Strube, M. J., Tobey, E. A.,  Pisoni, D. B., & Moog, J. S. (2010). Epilogue: Factors contributing to long-term outcomes of cochlear Implantation in early childhood. Ear and Hearing, 32(1), 84S-92S.  

Grosjean, F. (2008). Studying bilinguals. New York: Oxford University Press. [Note: See Ch. 13, "The bilingualism and biculturalism of the deaf."]  

Hawker, K., Ramirez-Inscoe, J., Bishop, D.V., Twomey, T., O'Donoghue, G. M., & Moore, D. R. (2008). Disproportionate language impairment in children using cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing, 29(3), 467-471.  

Inscoe, J. R., Odell, A., Archbold, S., & Nikolopoulos, T. (2009). Expressive spoken language development in deaf children with cochlear implants who are beginning formal education. Deafness and Education International, 11(1), 39-55. doi: 10.1002/dei.252.  

Lederberg, A., & Spencer, P. (2009). Word-learning abilities in deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers. Effect of lexicon size and language modality. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14, 44-62.  

Knoors, H., & Marschark, M. (2012). Language planning for the 21st century: Revisiting bilingual language policy for deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17, 291-305. doi:10.1093/deafed/ens018  

Marschark, M., Rhoten, C., & Fabich, M. (2007, May). Effects of cochlear implants on children's reading and academic achievement. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Advance Access.  

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2007). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(4), 1048-1062. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/073).  

Niparko, J. (2008). Childhood development after cochlear implantation: Prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study of pediatric outcomes. Preliminary data presented at the Rhode Island Hearing Assessment Program, Beyond the Diagnosis: Creating Positive Environments. Rhode Island Convention Center, March 17, 2008.   

Peterson, N. R., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2010). Cochlear implants and spoken language processing abilities: Review and assessment of the literature. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 28, 237-250. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0535  

Spencer, L. J., Barker, B. A., & Tomblin, J. B. (2003). Exploring the language and literacy outcomes of pediatric cochlear implant users. Ear and Hearing, 24, 236-247.  

Tait, M., Lutman, M. E., & Robinson, K. (2000). Pre-implant measures of preverbal communicative behavior as predictors of cochlear implant outcomes in children. Ear and Hearing, 21, 18-24.   

Tomblin, B., Barker, B., Spencer, L., Zhang, X., & Gantz, B. (2005, August). The effect of age at cochlear implant initial stimulation on expressive language growth in infants and toddlers. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 48, 853-867. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2005/059).

Education:  

Archbold, S., & O'Donoghue. (2009). Education and childhood deafness: Changing choices and new challenges. In J. Niparko (Ed.), Cochlear implants: Principles and practices. (2nd ed., pp. 313- 345). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  

Chute, P., & Nevins, M. E. (2006). School professionals working with children with cochlear implants. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.  

Edwards, L. (2007, May). Children with cochlear implants and complex needs: A review of outcome research and psychological practice. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(3), 258-268.  

Fink, N., Wang, N., Visava, J., Niparko, J., Quittner, A., Eisenberh, L., et al. (2002). Childhood Development after Cochlear Implantation (CDaCI) study: Design and baseline Characteristics. Cochlear Implants International, 8(2).  

Garate, M. (2011). Educating children with cochlear implants in an ASL/English bilingual classroom. In R. Paludneviciene & I. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives (pp.206-228). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Geers, A., & Nicholas, J. (2007, August). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1048-1062.  

Inscoe, J. R., Odell, A., Archbold, S., & Nikolopoulos, T. (2009). Expressive spoken language development in deaf children with cochlear implants who are beginning formal education. Deafness and Education International, 11(1), 39-55.  

Marschark, M., & Hauser, P. (2012). How deaf children learn: What parents and teachers need to know. New York: Oxford University Press.  

Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (Eds.). (2003). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. New York: Oxford University Press.  

Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (Eds.). (2010). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education, 2.  New York:  Oxford University Press.  

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2008). Expected test scores for preschoolers with a cochlear implant who use spoken language. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 121-138.  

Nussbaum, D., Scott, S. & Simms, L. E. (2012). The "Why" and "How" of an ASL/English bimodal bilingual approach. Odyssey, 13, 14-19.  

Schick, B., Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. E. (2006). Advances in the sign language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York: Oxford University Press.  

Spencer, L., Gantz, B., & Knutson, J. (2004, September). Outcomes and achievement of students who grew up with access to cochlear implants. The Laryngoscope.  

Spencer, P., Erting, C., & Marschark, M. (Eds.). (2000). The deaf child in the family and at school. Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   

Spencer, P. E., & Marschark, M. (2006). Advances in the spoken-language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York: Oxford University Press.  

Swanwick, R., & Tsverik, I. (2007). The role of sign language for deaf children with cochlear implants: Good practice in sign bilingual settings. Deafness and Education International, 9(4), 214-231.  

Watson, L., Archbold, S., & Nikolopoulos, T. (2006). Children's communication mode five years after cochlear implantation: Changes over time according to age at implant. Cochlear Implants International, 7(2), 77-91.  

Watson, L.M., & Gregory, S. (2005). Non-use of cochlear implants in children: child and parent perspectives. Deafness and Education International, 7(1), 43-58.

Family Perspectives:

Archbold, S., Sach, T., O'Neill, C., Lutman, M., & Gregory, S. (2008). Outcomes from cochlear implantation for child and family: Parental perspectives. Deafness and Education International, 10(3), 120-142. doi:10.1002/dei.243.  

Huttunen, K., & Välimaa, T. (2010). Parents' views on changes in their child's communication and linguistic and socioemotional development after cochlear implantation. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(4), 383. doi:10.1093/deafed/enq02979.  

Hyde, M., Punch, R., & Komesaroff, L. (2010). Coming to a decision about cochlear implantation: Parents making choices for their deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(2), 162-178.  

Mitchiner, J., & Sass-Lehrer, M. (2012). My child can have more choices: Reflections of deaf mothers on cochlear implants for their children. In R. Paludneviciene & I. W. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.    

Wheeler, A., Archbold, S. M., Hardie, T., & Watson, L. M. (2009). Children with cochlear implants: The communication journey. Cochlear Implants International, 10(1), 41-62.      

Other Perspectives:  

Archbold, S., & Wheeler, A. (2010). Cochlear implants: Family and young people's perspectives. In M. Marschark & P. Spencer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education (2nd ed., pp. 226-240). New York: Oxford University Press.  

Christiansen, J., & Leigh, I. (2004, May). Children with cochlear implants: Changing parent and deaf community perspectives. Archives of Otolaryngology, 130(5).  

Christiansen, J. B., & Leigh, I. W. (2011). Cochlear implants and deaf community perceptions. In R. Paludneviciene, & I. W. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives (pp. 39-55). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.  

Gale, E. (2010). Exploring perspective on cochlear implants and language acquisition within the deaf community. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16, 121-139.  

Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Padden, C., Rathmann, C., & Smith, S. R. (2012). Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance for the use of alternative approaches. Harm Reduction Journal, 9(16). doi:10.1186/1477-7517-9-16    

Huttunen, K., & Välimaa, T. (2010). Parents' views on changes in their child's communication and linguistic and socioemotional development after cochlear implantation. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(4), 383.  

Hyde, M., & Power, D. (2006). Some ethical dimensions of cochlear implantation for deaf children and their families. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(1), 102 -111. doi:10.1093/deafed/enj009.  

Kermit, P. (2010). Choosing for the child with cochlear implants: A note of precaution. Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy, 13(2), 157.  

Leigh, I. W., & Maxwell-McCaw, D. (2011). Cochlear implants: Implications for deaf identities. In R. Paludneviciene & I. W. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives (pp. 95-110). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.  

Paludneviciene, R., & Harris, R. L. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In R. Paludneviciene & I. Leigh (Eds.), Cochlear implants: Evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.  

Watson, L., Hardie, S., & Wheeler, A. (2008). Parents' views on changing communication after cochlear implantation. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(1), 104-116.

Developed by Debra Berlin Nussbaum at the Cochlear Implant Education Center, Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center; last revised October 2014

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